top of page

This bibliography is divided into three sections, providing I. General Reference on monasticism, epigraphy, and landscape archaeology, and more specific information on II. Avdat and the Negev and III. Beni Hassan. The lists will be updated on a regular basis, so check back for additional sources.

Select Bibliography
I. General Reference
II. Avdat and the Negev
III. Beni Hassan

Ashkenazi, E., Y. Avni, and G. Avni. 2012. A Comprehensive Characterization of Ancient Desert Agricultural Systems in the Negev Highlands of Israel. Journal of Arid

  Environments 86: 55–64.


Avni, G. 1996. Nomads, Farmers, and Town-Dwellers: Pastoralist-Sedentist Interactions in the Negev Highlands, Sixth–Eighth Centuries C.E. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities



Erickson-Gini, T. 2010. Nabataean Settlement and Self-Organized Economy in the Central Negev: Crisis and Renewal. Oxford: Archaeopress.


Erickson-Gini, T. and S. Bucking. Forthcoming. Avdat—Area D. Hadashot Arkheologiyot/Excavations and Surveys in Israel


Evenari, M., L. Shanan, and N. Tadmor. 1982. The Negev: The Challenge of a Desert, 2nd edition. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.


Figueras, P. 1995. Monks and Monasteries in the Negev Desert. Liber Annuus 45: 401–450.


Figueras, P. 1995. Pilgrims to Sinai in the Byzantine Negev. In Akten des XII. Internationalen Kongresses für Christliche Archäologie, Bonn 22. 28. September 1991, edited

  by E. Dassmann and J. Engemann, 756–762. Münster: Aschendorffsche Verlagsbuchhandlung.


Figueras, P. 2013. Christian Archaeology in the Negev Desert. Milan: Edizioni Terra Santa.


Jaussen, A., R. Savignac, and L.-H. Vincent. 1904. ’Abdeh (4–9 février 1904). Revue Biblique Internationale, n.s. 1: 403–424.


Jaussen, A., R. Savignac, and L.-H.Vincent. 1905. ’Abdeh  (Suite) (4–9 février 1904). Revue Biblique Internationale, n.s. 2: 74–89, 235–244.


Kedar, Y. 1967. The Ancient Agriculture in the Negev Mountains. Jerusalem: Bialik Institute. (Hebrew)


Korjenkov, A.M. and E. Mazor. 1998. Seismogenic Origins of the Ancient Avdat Ruins, Negev Desert, Israel. Natural Hazards 18: 193–226.


Meshel, Z. and Y. Tsafrir. 1977. Archaeological Survey in Ein Avdat. Jerusalem: Ministry of Education. (Hebrew)


Musil, A. 1907. Arabia Petraea II: Edom. Vienna: A. Hölder. Also available online from click here.


Negev, A. 1981. The Greek Inscriptions from the Negev. Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press.


Negev, A. 1993. Oboda. In The New Encyclopedia of Archaeological Excavations in the Holy Land, edited by E. Stern, vol. 3, 1155–1165. Jerusalem: Israel Exploration Society

  and Carta.


Negev, A. 1997. The Architecture of Oboda: Final Report. Jerusalem: Institute of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem.


Negev, A. and S. Gibson, eds. 2001. Oboda. In Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, 371–375. New York: Continuum.


Rosen, S.A. 2000. The Decline of Desert Agriculture: A View from the Classical Period Negev. In The Archaeology of Drylands: Living at the Margin, edited by G. Barker and

  D. Gilbertson, 44–61. London: Routledge.


Shamir, O. and A. Baginski, 2001. Textiles and Cordage from 'Avdat - The Cave of the Saints. 'Atiqot 42: 243-260. Also available online from JSTOR: click here.

Shereshevski, J. 1991. Byzantine Urban Settlements in the Negev Desert. Be'er Sheva: Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press.

Atzler, M. 1972. Ein ägyptisches Reliefbruchstück des Königs Alexander IV. Antike Kunst 15: 120–121.


Badawy, A. 1953. Les Premiers établissements chrétiens dans les anciennes tombes d'Egypte. In Tome commémoratif du millénaire de la Bibliothèque patriarcate

  d'Alexandrie, edited by T.D. Mosconas and C. Garbett, 67–89. Alexandria: Imprimerie du Commerce.


Brand, P. 2000. The Monuments of Seti I: Epigraphic, Historical, and Art Historical Analysis. Leiden: Brill.


Bucking, S. 2014. Now You See It, Now You Don’t: The Dynamics of Archaeological and Epigraphic Landscapes from Coptic Egypt. In Archaeologies of Text: Archaeology,

  Technology, and Ethics, edited by M.M. Kersel and M.T. Rutz, 60–80. Oxford: Oxbow Books. Also available online from click here.


Champollion, J.-F. 1889. Hypogées de Béni-Hassan. In Monuments de l’Égypte et de la Nubie. Notices descriptives. Tome ii, 334–436. Paris: F. Didot frères. Also available

  online from the University of Heidelberg: click here.


Coquin, R.-G. and M. Martin. 1991. Beni Hasan and Speos Artemidos. In The Coptic Encyclopedia, Volume 2, edited by A.S. Atiya, 334–335. New York: Macmillan. Also

  available online from the Claremont Colleges Digital Library, California: click here.


Fairman, H.W. and B. Grdseloff. 1947. Texts of Hatshepsut and Sethos I Inside Speos Artemidos. Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 33: 12–33.


Fakhry, A. 1939. A New Speos from the Reign of Hatshepsut and Tuthmosis III at Beni-Ḥasan. Annales du service des antiquités de l'Égypte 39: 709–723.


Garstang, J. 1907. The Burial Customs of Ancient Egypt as Illustrated by Tombs of the Middle Kingdom. London: Constable. Also available online (USA only) from

  HathiTrust Digital Library: click here.


Granger, C. 1745. Relation du voyage fait en Egypte, par le sieur Granger, en l'année 1730. Paris: Chez Jacques Vincent.


Holthoer, R. 1976. Coptic Graffiti in Speos Artemidos. Studia Orientalia 45: 97–99.


Jones, M. 1993. Beni Hassan el-Qadim: A Christian Village in Middle Egypt. In Alexandrian Studies in Memoriam Daoud Abdu Daoud, edited by N. Swelim, 163–172.

  Alexandria: Société Archéologique d'Alexandrie.


Joumard, E.-F. 1822. Description des antiquités de l’Heptanomide. In Description de l'Égypte. Seconde édition. Tome IV: Antiquités—Descriptions, 285–415. Paris:

  Imprimerie de C. L. F. Panckoucke. Also available online from the Bibliothèque nationale de France: click here.


Junge, F. 1975. Beni Hassan. In Lexikon der Ägyptologie, Band I, edited by W. Helck and E. Otto, 695–698. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz.


Klemm, R. and D.D. Klemm. 2008. Stones and Quarries in Ancient Egypt. London: British Museum Press.


Lepsius, R. 1904. Benihassan. In Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Text. Zweiter Band: Mittelaegypten mit dem Faijum, 69–108. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrich. Also available

  online from click here.


Lepsius, R. 1904. Speos Artemidos. In Denkmäler aus Aegypten und Aethiopien. Text. Zweiter Band: Mittelaegypten mit dem Faijum, 108–112. Leipzig: J.C. Hinrich. Also

  available online from click here.


Martin, M. 1971. La laure de Dêr al Dîk à Antinoé. Cairo: Institut français d'archéologie orientale du Caire


Newberry, P.E. 1893. Beni Hasan, Parts I–II. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd. Available online from University of Heidelberg: for Part I click here and for

  Part II click here.


Naville, M., P.E. Newberry, and G.W. Fraser. 1891. The Season's Work at Ahnas and Beni Hasan, 1890–1891. London: Gilbert and Rivington Ltd. Also available online from click here.


Porter, B. and R.L.B. Moss. 1968. Beni Hasan and Speos Artemidos. In Topographical Bibliography of Ancient Egyptian Hieroglyphic Texts, Reliefs, and Paintings: IV. Lower

  and Middle Egypt, 141–165. Oxford: Clarendon Press. Also available online from the Griffith Institute, Oxford: click here.


Spanel, D. 2001. Beni Hasan. In The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 1, edited by D.B. Redford, 175–177. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Timm, S. 1991. Speos Artemidos. In Das christlich-koptische Ägypten in arabischer Zeit, Teil 5, 2382-2384. Wiesbaden: Dr. Ludwig Reichert Verlag.

Anschuetz, K.F., R.H. Wilshusen, and C.L. Scheick. 2001. An Archaeology of Landscapes: Perspectives and Directions. Journal of Archaeological Research 9: 157–211.


Ashmore, W. 2007. Social Archaeologies of Landscape. In A Companion to Social Archaeology, edited by L. Meskell and R.W. Preucel, 255–71. Oxford: Blackwell.


Ashmore, W. and A.B. Knapp, eds. 1999. Archaeologies of Landscape: Contemporary Perspectives. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell

Baird, J.A. and C. Taylor. 2011. Ancient Graffiti in Context: Introduction. In Ancient Graffiti in Context, edited by J.A. Baird and C. Taylor, 1–19. New York: Routledge.


Bolman, E.S. 2007. Depicting the Kingdom of Heaven: Paintings and Monastic Practice in Late Antique Egypt. In Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300–700, edited by R.S.

  Bagnall, 408–433. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Brooks Hedstrom, D.L. 2007. Divine Architects: Designing the Monastic Dwelling Place. In Egypt in the Byzantine World, 300–700, edited by R.S. Bagnall, 368–389.

  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Caner, D.E. 2010. History and Hagiography from the Late Antique Sinai. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, Liverpool


Chippendale, C. 2001. Studying Ancient Pictures as Pictures. In Handbook of Rock Art Research, edited by D.S. Whitley, 247–272. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press.


Dahari, U. 2000. Monastic Settlements in South Sinai in the Byzantine Period: The Archaeological Remains. Jerusalem: Israel Antiquities Authority.


David, B. and J. Thomas, eds. 2010. Handbook of Landscape Archaeology. Walnut Creek, Calif.: Left Coast Press.


Davies, J.K. and J.J. Wilkes. Epigraphy and the Historical Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Finkelstein, I. and A. Ovadiah. 1985. Byzantine Monastic Remains in the Southern Sinai. Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39: 39–75.


Goldfus, H. 2003. Urban Monasticism and Monasteries of Early Byzantine Palestine—Preliminary Observations. Aram 15: 71–79.


Goldfus, H., B. Arubas, and E. Alliata. 1995. The Monastery of Saint Theoctistus (Deir Muqallik). Liber Annuus 45 (1995): 247–292.


Hirschfeld, Y. 1992. Judean Desert Monasteries in the Byzantine Period. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.


Hirschfeld, Y. 2004. The Monasteries of Gaza: An Archaeological Review. In Christian Gaza in Late Antiquity, edited by B. Bitton-Ashkelony and A. Kofsky, 61–88. Leiden:



Kaczynski, B. (ed.). Forthcoming. Oxford Handbook of Christian Monasticism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


McLean, B.H. 2011. An Introduction to Greek Epigraphy of the Hellenistic and Roman Periods from Alexander the Great down to the Reign of Constantine (323 B.C. –

  A.D. 337). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.


Patrich, J. 1985. Sabas, Leader of Palestinian Monasticism: A Comparative Study in Eastern Monasticism, Fourth to Seventh Centuries. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks.


Patrich, J. 2004. Monastic Landscapes. In Recent Research on the Late Antique Countryside, edited by W. Bowden, L. Lavan, and C. Machado, 413–446. Leiden: Brill.


van Loon, G. and A. Delattre. 2014. Patterns of Monastic Habitation on the East Bank of the Nile in Middle Egypt: Dayr al-Dik, Dayr Abū Ḥinnis, and al-Shaykh Sa'id. With

  an Appendix on InscriptionsJournal of Coptic Studies 16: 235–278.


Walter, C. 1999. Theodore, Archetype of the Warrior Saint. Revue des études byzantins 57: 163–210. Also available online from Persée: click here.


Wilkinson, T.J. 2003. Archaeological Landscapes of the Near East. Tucson: University of Arizona Press.


Yale Egyptological Institute. 2006. Wadi al-Natrun Project (accessed 8 May 2016).


Yale Egyptological Institute. 2006. White Monastery Project (accessed 8 May 2016).


Yasin, A.M. 2015. Prayers on Site: The Materiality of Devotional Graffiti and the Production of Early Christian Sacred Space. In Viewing Inscriptions in the Late

  Antique and Medieval World, edited by A. Eastmond, 36–60. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Anchor 1
bottom of page